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Safety Precautions at Site

Bureau Built Constructions

1.0. INTRODUCTION

Indian National Building Code-2005 while substantiating safety aspects, highlights- The safety of personnel engaged in building construction should be ensured through a well planned and well organized mechanism. For this, depending on the size and complexity of building construction project, safety committee shall be constituted to efficiently manage all safety related affairs. The site in-charge or his nominee of a senior rank shall head the committee and a safety officer shall act as member secretary. The meetings of the safety committee shall be organized regularly say fortnightly or monthly depending on the nature of the project, however, emergency meetings shall be called as and when required. The safety committees shall deal with all the safety related issues through well structured agenda, in the meetings and all safety related measures installed at the site and implementation thereof shall be periodically reviewed. Some of the most fundamental safety precautions to be taken at site are listed hereunder.

2.0. PPE REQUIREMENTS

  • Protective Eyewear & Hard Hats- Construction personnel shall wear the appropriate personal protective equipment. Hard hats are mandatory on all active construction sites. Safety glasses with side shields are required in posted areas and for any work activity that could make the eyes susceptible to injury. While drilling or chipping, overhead, goggles should be worn. Face shields shall be worn when required.
  • Work Clothing- Minimum clothing requirements are as follows: full-length pants, shirt and sturdy leather work boots or shoes. Visitors to the construction site are required to maintain the same dress code as above. For flame-resistant (FR) clothing requirements see the electrical safety section.
  • PPE Care & Storage- All personal protective equipment used shall be used, stored, maintained, and replaced in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements (i.e., respiratory equipment, fall protection, electrical personal protective equipment, etc.).
  • Protective Footwear- Where there is the potential for hazardous conditions capable of causing foot injury; safety toe footwear shall be worn in construction areas.
  • Fall Protection- Fall protection equipment shall be used when working six feet or more above the floors and outside the confines of protective guardrails, or when three points of contact on a ladder cannot be maintained. Fall protection shall be worn on projects where such systems are required (articulated boom lifts). Fall protection equipment shall be worn by the personnel when heights less than six feet are particularly hazardous (i.e., when working over machinery or objects capable of impalement).
  • PPE Identification- Contractor is responsible for identifying and requiring appropriate personal protective equipment to be worn by their personnel beyond minimum items described.

3.0. OVERHEAD WORK HAZARDS

The potential for overhead hazards are abundant throughout and these hazards include un-insulated steam lines, sprinkler heads, fiber optic cable system, sharp objects, dust, electrical buss ducts, high voltage cable trays and exposed electrical conductors on overhead cranes and older lighting systems. Any project involving lifts, ladders and scaffold above 2.5 m require an evaluation of the potential hazards and the method of control used to protect the worker must be addressed in the project. 

Safe Work Zone

Contractor is responsible for protecting personnel and property against potential damage. The construction site must be posted with appropriate barricades and signs. Barricades are obstructions to warn the passage of persons or vehicles into areas where temporary hazards exist. Take into account the height of what is being worked on. Adjust the size of the work area boundaries as necessary during the project.

Working overhead

When working overhead, "Men Working Overhead" signs shall be prominently displayed in all directions of travel near the work. When the potential for falling material (bolts, hangers, nuts, pipe, insulation, etc.) exists, barricade and protect the area and/or equipment from damage. The Seller shall also provide an employee to be stationed below the work area to keep unauthorized personnel out. Area shall be kept secure until all hazards are removed from the work site. When overhead work must be performed over false ceiling areas, additional appropriate measures must be taken such as tethering off hand tools or laying plywood down to protect the ceiling.

Acceptable barricade

Acceptable barricade materials include the following:

  • High-visibility tape, yellow rope, plastic chains;
  • Rubber or plastic traffic cones;
  • Sawhorses (flasher lights for night hours);
  • Metal or wood guardrails; and
  • Portable screens.

Barricade Locations

Barricades shall be used in the following instances:

  • Areas below overhead work;
  • Hazardous leaks or spills;
  • Sand or shot blasting;
  • Asbestos removal;
  • Radiography;
  • Temporary open trenches, ditches, or holes;
  • Removing machinery and equipment.

Safety Guardrails

Guardrails are barriers to physically prevent persons from falling through wall openings or stepping into temporary openings. Guardrails shall be constructed of a standard top rail, mid-rail, and toe board and capable of withstanding 100 kg lateral force or provide the equivalent protective factor.

4.0. SCAFFOLDING

  • All scaffolds shall be erected and operated under supervision of a competent person. All scaffolding over six feet in height shall have the appropriate guardrails, mid-rails, and toe boards. If a person must pass underneath, 1/2-inch wire mesh or equivalent shall extend along the entire opening.
  • Unstable objects must not be used to support scaffolds or planks. All scaffolds must be plumb, secure, and capable of supporting, without failure, at least four times the maximum intended load.
  • Painter or Baker scaffolds (four feet in height and less than 45 inches wide) shall have guardrails installed on all open sides and ends of the platform. No Painters or Bakers scaffold system extended to a walking surface height greater than four feet will be allowed.
  • An access ladder or equivalent safe access must be provided.
  • Scaffold planks must be overlapped a minimum of 12 inches or secured from movement. End supports of planks must extend at least six inches but no more than 12 inches.
  • Moveable scaffolds shall be locked in place when in use.

5.0. LADDERS

  • No aluminum ladders are to be used or brought on site due to the potential for contact with energized electrical systems.
  • Portable ladders in use shall be tied, blocked, or otherwise secured to prevent displacement.
  • The top two steps of a stepladder shall not be used as a step.
  • The area around the top and bottom of ladders shall be kept clear.
  • Ladders shall not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent displacement.

6.0. CRANES

Use of cranes, including in-plant overhead bridge cranes, requires a Construction Safety Work Permit. All overhead lifts shall be coordinated through the Project Engineer or Facilities Operations Planning Specialist. All mobile cranes must have the most recent annual inspection form available prior to operating. All cranes used outdoors shall remain clear of overhead power lines. Work areas must be walked down by planners and workers to identify overhead line hazards. Should the situation exist that the crane has the potential to contact the overhead power lines the general contractor shall develop a two barrier control utilizing 2 of the systems described below: 

  • Trained spotters - spotters trained in the techniques of visually determining standoff distance and in radio communication with the operator.
  • Physical boundaries - barriers that prevent the equipment from intruding within the standoff distance.
  • Demarcation lines - stakes or painted lines that provide constant reminders to equipment operators of the proximity.
  • Measurement of the overhead line and equipment clearance - utilizing remote, not direct, measurement techniques to determine the actual clearance distance.
  • Use of reflective materials - enhancing visual identification of spotters by equipment operators.

If there are circumstances that preclude de-energizing overhead power lines, those reasons should be documented in the work planning process and approved at the project management level. All hoisting and rigging equipment shall be properly maintained, inspected and marked with working load limit and manufacturer. Any defective rigging equipment must be removed from the job site.

7.0. EXCAVATIONS

Underground utility drawings are generally provided to communicate potential known hazards. However, if there is no representation that the drawings are accurate with respect to relational locations or the comprehensiveness of all utilities in the area, extra care to be taken while execution. Prior to the start of the project, all potentially hazardous materials are identified and disclosed to the Seller. However, should an excavation reveal any unsuspected soil with unusual color, odor or appear oily stop work immediately and to be notified to the concerned authority.

 

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